The cashew plant is a Brazilian variety that was introduced to India by the Portuguese during the 16th century. Cashew nut contains 16.9 percent fat, 22.3 percent carbohydrate and 21.2% protein. It also contains calcium, iron, vitamin B12, and vitamin C and is rich in nutrients as well as milk, eggs and meat. Apart from being a good appetizer and a very good nerve tonic, it is a constant stimulant used to produce wine.
Cashew requires temperatures between 16 °C and 25 °C and an average annual rainfall of between 50 cm and 400 cm. It grows well on poor soils and rocks. Cashew is planted late in the season (west coast) and sandy soil (east coast). Fruits ripen from March to May. Plants usually start to bear fruit after 3 years, and the average yield is 865 kg of raw cashew per hectare per year.
The cashew kernel is extracted from nuts by roasting, shelling and peeling. The oil comes out of a solid outer coat when the nut is used to make paints and varnishes. Similarly, the juice from cashew apple is used to make syrup, squash, jam and wine.
Weather And Climate
Cashew is a tropical crop that gives good yield in a hot and hot climate. Its cultivation is affected in areas where there is a possibility of frost, or there is a long winter—700 m High altitude areas where the temperature is 200°C. Cashew nut has a good yield. 600-4500 mm Suitable for areas with annual rainfall. Cashew can be grown in many types of soils, but the red and laterite soil areas with seaside effects are more suitable for its cultivation. East and West Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan districts of Jharkhand state have been found very suitable for cashew cultivation. The soil and the climate of these districts are suitable for cashew cultivation.
Improved varieties of cashew have been recommended by the National Center for Research on Cashew Nuts (Puttur) for different states. According to this, although the varieties are not recommended for the state of Jharkhand, the varieties which are suitable for Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bengal and Karnataka can be cultivated in the state of Jharkhand also. The wide varieties of cashew for the area are Vegurla-4, Ullal-2, Ullal-4, BPP-1, BPP-2, T-40 etc.
Preparation For Cultivation
For the cultivation of cashew, first of all, after cleaning the bushes and grasses of the field, plow the field 2-3 times. For this purpose, farmers use Mini Tractor to Equalize the field by removing the roots of the bushes so that there is no difficulty in growing new plants in the initial stage.
Cashew plants should be planted at 7-8 m, in square method at a distance of. Therefore, after the preparation of the field, in the month of April-May, 60 x 60 x 60 cm at a certain distance. Shape pits are prepared. If there is a hard layer in the ground, then the size of the pit can be increased as per the requirement. After leaving the pits open for 15-20 days, 5 kg. Dung manure or compost, 2 kg. Rock phosphate, or a mixture of DAP, is mixed and filled in the topsoil of the pit. Such arrangements should be made around the pits that water does not stagnate there. The spacing of plants to be planted more intensively is 5 x 5 or 4 x 4 m. keep. The rest of the process remains as it is.
Cashew plants can be prepared by the softwood grafting method. The suitable time for plant preparation is the month of May-July.
Planting cashew plants only during the rainy season gives good success. After planting the saplings in the prepared pits, they make a tray and keep weeding and weeding the weeds in the trays from time to time. Dry grass mulch is also spread in the water conservation platters.
Manures And Fertilizers
Every year 10-15 kg of plants are given to the plants. Along with proper manure of cow dung, a suitable amount of chemical fertilizers should also be given. In the first year, give 300 grams of urea, 200 grams of rock phosphate, 70 grams of muriatic of potash per plant, double it in the second year, and after three years, give 1 kg of plants: urea, 600 g. Rock phosphate and 200 grams of muriatic potash were distributed half-and-half in the months of May-June and September-October every year.
Cashew plants need to be given a good structure in the initial stage, so after plucking, keep cutting dry, disease and pest affected and scissor branches by suitable pruning.
There is a major problem of ‘Tea Maskito Bug’ in cashews. Its adults and newborns cause harm by sucking the sap from the new shoots, shoots, fruits. Sometimes its problem becomes so serious that for its control, arrangements have to be made for special spraying all over the area. For its control, a spray schedule has been prepared, which is as follows.
First, spray – at the time of the flowering – of Monocrotophos (0.05 per cent)
Second spray – at the time of flowering – of Curveril (0.1%) and
Third, spray – at the time of fruiting – Carveril (0.1%)
Harvest And Yield
In cashew, the whole fruit is not plucked; only the fallen nuts are collected and kept in the sun, dried and filled in jute sacks and kept in a high place. About 8 kg of nuts is obtained from each plant annually. In this way, about 10-15 quintals of cashew nuts are obtained in one hectare. After processing, edible cashew is obtained.
For more information regarding cashew farming feel free to contact us.